Mart 2002 Dnemi DS Salk Soru ve Cevaplar
Bu sorular, PRODEM Dil Eitim Merkezi Yabanc Diller Bakanlnca sitemize gnderilmitir. Kendilerine teekkur ediyoruz.
1.- 21. Sorularda, cmlede bo braklan yere uygun den szck ya da ifadeyi bulunuz.
1- Studies of the survivors of the atomic bomb blasts and radiation accidents
have --------------demonstrated the leukemogenic effect of radiation.
2- Malnutrition and undernutrition are not _________to the Third World;
they also occur in affluent societies.
3- In the past 25 years new knowledge about cancer has led to changes in
dietary ______ for the public.
4- Biotechnology offers opportunities to improve the quality and ______value
5- Our paediatrician said we should always _______her if the little boys
temperature continued for more than 24 hours.
A) come across
B) get in touch with
C) look forward to
D) make up to
E) look into
6- Only after a great deal of pressure had been _______ the registrar did
he agree to give up the recovery ward in favour of a second operating theatre.
A) weighed up
B) taken to
C) put on
D) brought down
E) turned over
7- He claims he has ______ a cure for the common cold, but I dont suppose
A) waited for
B) made sure of
C) put through
D) taken care of
E) come up with
8- Over morphological lesions are relatively late manifestations of nutritional
disorder and may be preceded ______ long periods of time _______ functional
A) through/ to
B) in/ from
D) over/ for
E) at / through
9- If Julie ________ herself like that while we were away, she _________
from anorexia nervosa today.
A) hasnt starved / wouldnt suffer
B) didnt starve / isnt suffering
C) hadnt starved / wouldnt be suffering
D) wouldnt starve / wont be suffering
E) wasnt starving / isnt suffering
10- Health Watch, which, initially at least, ______ by pharmaceutical companies,
________ an aggressive campaign against natural medicines.
A) was financed / is waging
B) had financed / was waging
C) has been financed / had waged
D) was being financed / had been waging
E) will be financed / would wage
11- From time to time, many different theories of heredity _____, only some
of which ______ valid now.
A) had been advanced / had been
B) were advanced / would be
C) are advanced / were
D) have been advanced / are
E) will be advanced / would be
12- It would be foolish of them not _______ genetic advice as their first
child was abnormal.
A) to seek
B) having sought
C) to have sought
E) being sought
13- The students who ____ a top grade in pharmacology were admitted to postgraduate
A) have received
B) had received
D) will receive
E) are receiving
14- Depression could be one of the fastest growing ailments of the 21st
century _______ young, unmarried people most________ risk.
A) about/ in
B) for / from
C) through/ of
D) of / on
E) with / at
15- Unfortunately, adults dont usually offer early adolescents __________
warm indulgence and social protection than they provided a decade earlier.
B) as much
D) the same
E) such as
16-A lot of my colleagues work with radiation, but they dont seem to have
been adversely affected by it, and _________ .
A) neither do I
B) I have too
C) neither was I
D) nor was I
E) nor did I
17- In Africa, the irresponsible sewage discharge of an exclusive hotel
gradually put an end to the seafood harvest on ________ a local village depended
for its livelihood.
18- The inquiry into the foot and mouth epidemic will bring together veterinary
scientists, virologists and epidemiologists________ the representatives of farming
and consumer groups.
A) as well as
B) such as
D) as to as
E) but for
19- Scientists wondered .................. Dolly, the cloned sheep, would
live a normal life span ......... simply live out the remaining years of the
sheep from which she had been cloned.
A) more / than
B) so / that
C) whether / or
D) neither / nor
E) just / as
20- ........... obesity results basically from an excess of calories, in
some instances, genetic background may be a contributing factor.
D) Even though
21- It may have something to do with the rising price of medicines, but
certainly ............ people are beginning to show an interest in natural remedies.
A) as many more
B) the more
C) the most
D) as many
E) more and more
22. - 31. sorularda, verilen cmleyi uygun ekilde tamamlayan ifadeyi bulunuz.
22- ......, the quantity of the radiation is a major factor in determining
its potential consequences.
A) If the dose of radiation can induce the desired biological effect
B) Though the repair of radiation injury may occur between divided doses
C) Whatever the characteristics of a particular form of radiation are
D) When radiation was delivered in divided doses
E) Until the rate of delivery was established
23- There is no justification for special hospitals except in large university
centres ............. .
A) whatever the opinion of the inspector had been
B) if there were large numbers of medical student
C) unless infectious diseases became prevalent
D) as there has been an increased outlay in equipment
E) where postgraduate teaching is carried out on a large scale
24- Hemlock is a poison_________ .
A) that there are several alkaloids including coniine
B) as the smell is most unpleasant
C) which paralyses the motor nerves
D) as the respiratory nerves were affected
E) if it is sometimes used as a sedative
25- The effect of fast food on personal health has been harmful_______.
A) if it has an adverse impact on the farm economy
B) since it is based on refined foods stripped of nutrients
C) why the rising costs of health care should be considered
D) that such foods do not satisfy the bodys basic needs
E) so there has been a drop in the fruit and vegetable intake of the average person
26- In Britain, the practice of anaesthesia was established on a firm basis
by John Snow, ____.
A) until Clovers inhaler permitted a rapid onset of anaesthesia
B) whether this was actually the start of modern anaesthetics as we know it today
C) as ether had first been used in America as an anaesthetic in about 1846
D) which writings reveal his striking knowledge of applied physiology
E) who administered chloroform to Queen Victoria in 1853 at the birth of Prince Leopold
27- ______ whether there is whole body exposure or exposure only of parts.
A) The effects on hypothermia depend on
B) The reduction in the metabolic rate that accompanied the hypothermia
C) Abnormal core body temperature above 40C occurred
D) Children have recovered totally after hours of submersion in icy waters
E) There have been cases of successful resuscitation of those in hypothermia-related coma
28- If a child has nightmares frequently _________
A) this is probably due to some sort of insecurity
B) this manifested itself in an unwillingness to go to bed
C) crying at night due to fear of the dark needs sympathetic handling
D) it created problems at home or at school
E) a healthy child can sleep through almost any disturbance
29- As children vary so much in their individual requirements, _____
A) It hasnt been useful to compare the development of the cousins
B) one should not try to follow the book too closely
C) we certainly hadnt encouraged them to eat any more
D) I suppose he slept as much as he needed to
E) in fact, they compare well with the so-called average child
30- _________ because so many of them are born premature or with low birth
A) Protein-energy under nutrition over a prolonged period of time produces many syndromes
B) In children the condition kwashiorkor is characterized among other things by apathy and a distended stomach
C) Protein-energy malnutrition impairs the immune response
D) Protein energy malnutrition is rampant among infants in Third World countries
E) Over 10 million people died of under nutrition last year
31- ________ in which patients not confined to bed may have their meals.
A) Air-conditioning is recommended for all dressing and treatment rooms
B) Boredom is a major factor in poor morale
C) The current trend is reduce the size of wards
D) The disagreement was about the size of the ward
E) A lot of the newer hospitals provide day rooms
32.-36. sorularda verilen ingilizce cmlenin anlamna en yakn Trke cmleyi bulunuz.
32- Sometimes cells of the immune system do recognize cancer cells but are unable to destroy them.
A) Kanser hcrelerini bazen tanyabilen baklk sisteminin hcreleri onlar
tamamen ortadan kaldramaz.
B) Zaman zaman kanser hcrelerini belirleyen baklk sistemi hcreleri onlar yok etme gcne sahip deildir.
C) Baklk sisteminin hcreleri bazen kanser hcrelerini tanrlar ancak onlar yok edemezler.
D) Baklk sistemi hcreleri kanser hcrelerini bazen belirleseler de onlar tamamen ortadan kaldrma gcnden yoksundurlar.
E) Baklk sisteminin hcreleri kanser hcrelerini belirleyebilirler fakat bazen onlar ortadan kaldramazlar.
33- The most effective measure people can take against hypertension is to find out whether they have it.
A) nsanlar kendilerinde yksek tansiyon olup olmadn renerek buna kar
etkili nlemler alabilirler
B) Yksek tansiyonu olup olmadn renmek insanlarn alabilecei en etkili nlemlerden biridir.
C) Yksek tansiyonla ilgili olarak insanlarn en bata almas gereken nlem, kendilerinde bunun olup olmadn aratrmaktr.
D) Yksek tansiyona kar insanlarn alabilecei en etkili nlem, kendilerinde bunun olup olmadn renmektir.
E) Yksek tansiyona kar son derece etkili bir nlem alabilmek iin, insanlar kendilerinde bunun olup olmadn bilmelidirler.
34- More than a decade of basic research had been carried out before the gene responsible for Huntingtons disease was identified and cloned in 1993.
A) On yl sren temel aratrmalardan sonra, Huntington hastalnn sorumlusu
olan gen 1993te bulunmu ve klonlanmtr.
B) On yldan fazla sren temel aratrmalarda, Huntington hastalna neden olan gen bulunmu ve 1993te klonlanmtr.
C) Huntington hastalna yol aan ve 1993te klonlanan geni belirlemek iin on yl boyunca birok temel aratrma yaplmtr.
D) Huntington hastalnn sorumlusu olan gen, on yldan fazla sren temel aratrmalar sayesinde bulunmu ve 1993te klonlanmtr.
E) Huntington hastalnn sorumlusu olan gen 1993te belirlenmeden ve klonlanmadan nce, on yldan fazla bir sre temel aratrmalar yaplmtr.
35- Before a transplant is performed, tissues taken from the patient and from the donor must be typed and matched as closely as possible.
A) Organ nakli yaplmadan nce, hastadan ve vericiden alnan dokularn tipi
ve benzerlii tam olarak ortaya konmaldr.
B) Organ nakli yaplmadan nce, hastadan ve vericiden alnan dokular, olabildiince yakn olarak tiplenmeli ve elenmelidir.
C) Organ nakline karar verilmeden nce, hasta ve vericiden alnan dokular mmkn olduunca hzl bir ekilde tip ve benzerlik bakmndan belirlenmelidir.
D) Organ nakline karar verilmeden nce, tip belirleme ve elemenin olabildiince hassas bir ekilde yaplabilmesi iin hasta ve vericiden dokular alnmas gerekir.
E) Organ nakli yaplmadan nce, hasta ve vericiden dokular alnarak bunlarn tiplenmesi ve elemesi olabildiince abuk yaplmaldr.
36- Adolescence is a crucial period for bone development, and the requirement for calcium reaches its peak during these years.
A) Kalsiyum gereksinimi, kemik geliiminin ok nemli olduu ergenlik dneminde
doruk noktasna ular.
B) Ergenlikte, kemik geliimi hayati bir nem tar ve bu yllar kalsiyuma duyulan gereksinimin en yksek dzeyde olduu dnemdir.
C) Kalsiyum gereksiniminin ok yksek olduu ergenlik dneminde, kemik geliimi ok nemlidir ve bu yllarda dorua oluur.
D) Kemik geliimi iin kalsiyum gereksinimi, ergenlikte ok nem kazanr ve bu yllarda dorua ular.
E) Ergenlik, kemik geliimi iin ok nemli bir dnemdir ve bu yllarda kalsiyum gereksinimi doruk noktasna ular.
37.-41.sorularda verilen Trke cmlenin anlamna en yakn ngilizce cmleyi bulunuz.
37- Takma diler, iyi oturmu olsa bile, doal diler kadar etkili deildir
ve yetersiz ineme boulmaya neden olabilir.
A) False teeth, even well fitting ones, are never as efficient as real ones when it comes to chewing and there is thus a danger of choking.
B) Even well-fitting dentures are inefficient compared with natural teeth and inadequate chewing can result in choking.
C) However well dentures may fit, they are less efficient than real teeth and result in poor chewing and consequently choking.
D) Dentures even when they fit properly are not as efficient as natural teeth, and insufficient chewing can cause choking.
E) Natural teeth are far more efficient than false ones which even if they do fit well can lead to choking through inadequate chewing.
38- Beyin hcrelerinin dzenli ileyii, dier vcut sistemlerinin, zellikle
kan dolamnn, solunum sisteminin ve kandaki besin bileimini dzenleyen sistemlerin
dzgn almasna baldr.
A) To function correctly, the brain cells in particular require the proper functioning of the bodys other systems including the blood circulation, the respiratory system and the systems and the systems regulating the nutrient composition of the blood.
B) The proper functioning of the brain cells is dependent on the proper functioning of the other body systems especially the blood circulation, the respiratory system, and the systems regulating the nutrient composition of the blood.
C) For the brain cells to function properly, the other body systems such as blood circulation, respiration and the systems regulating the nutrient composition of the blood, must all be working correctly.
D) The brain cells can only function properly when the bodys other systems are doing so; in this respect, blood circulation, respiration and the systems controlling the nutrients in the blood are especially important.
E) The blood circulation, respiration and the system whereby the nutrient content of the blood is regulated must all be functioning effectively if the brain cells are to do so.
39- Mesane kontroln kaybetmi olan yallar ok su imekten kanabilirler.
A) Elderly people who have lost bladder control may avoid drinking a lot of water.
B) Old people lose bladder control and so are afraid of drinking a lot of water.
C) The elderly may be reluctant to drink much water if they have lost control over the bladder.
D) Older people may fear they will lose control of the bladder if they drink too much water.
E) Loss of bladder control in the elderly is the result of drinking too much water.
40- Kurun zehirlenmesinin yol at kanszlk, yanllkla, basit bir demir
eksiklii olarak alglanabilir ve bunun sonucu olarak yanl tedavi edilebilir.
A) Lead poisoning can lead to an anaemia, which is often wrongly diagnosed as mere iron deficiency, and accordingly incorrectly treated.
B) The anaemia which is caused by lead poisoning is often mistaken for mere iron deficiency, and hence incorrectly treated.
C) The anemia caused by lead poisoning may be mistaken for a simple iron deficiency and, as a result, may be incorrectly treated.
D) The anemia that accompanies lead poisoning closely resembles a mere iron deficiency and frequently gets treated as such.
E) Lead poisoning can result in an anemia that is hardly distinguishable from a simple iron deficiency and gets treated as such.
41- Kusma pek ok deiik hastaln bir semptomu olabilir veya uak ve deniz
yolculuu gibi vcudun dengesini bozan durumlarda meydana gelebilir.
A) Vomiting is a symptom of various different diseases and also a sign that the bodys equilibrium has been upset as in air or sea travel.
B) Many different diseases can cause vomiting but so can air and sea travel which upset the bodys equilibrium.
C) Vomiting occurs when the bodys equilibrium is upset whether this is owing to various diseases or something like air or sea travel.
D) Vomiting can be a symptom of many different diseases or may arise in situations that upset the bodys equilibrium, such as air and sea travel.
E) Vomiting is a sign that the bodys equilibrium has been upset, as in air or sea travel or it may be caused by a wide variety of diseases.
42.- 46. sorularda, karlkl konumann bo braklan ksmnda sylenmi
olabilecek sz bulunuz.
42- Alison: -What has caught your attention there?
Jenny:-Theyre advertising for a postdoctoral research scientist with experience in immunology.
Jenny :-Yes, Im. It could be just the chance Im looking for.
A) Then go on and apply for it.
B) Have you any chance of getting the post?
C) Well, are you thinking of applying for it?
D) Arent you a bit old for such a position?
E) But why immunology? Thats not your subject.
43- Paul: - I cant understand why they are incorporating accident hospitals
into general hospitals.
Ken: - I think its because the nature of accidents is changing. Take car accidents, for instance.
Paul: - .............
Ken: - Because, with the speeds involved, people can be really badly hurt and several specialists are sometimes needed to treat just one patient.
A) Yes, they are on the increase, arent they?
B) I dont understand. Why should they make such a difference?
C) But in the factories, the numbers of accidents have decreased quite considerably.
D) Yes, some people seem to be accident-prone.
E) Its usually the car that gets damaged not the people!
44- Fred : - Have you read this article on vegetarianism ?
Molly : - Yes, I have. And I must say I find it rather extreme.
Fred : ...........
Molly : - Im not sure. Its certainly trying to give that impression; but I dont think Im convinced.
A) To get an argument over, youve got to illustrate fully.
B) So did I . Theres not much basis in facts.
C) Really? I dont agree at all. But then I am, more or less vegetarian.
D) It seems to me that it has been very well researched. Dont you agree?
E) Maybe it is in parts. Dont you believe any of it?
45- Bernard :- Whats the problem? Is it a case of vitamin D deficiency?
Craig :- It could be but Im not sure. There is a background of malnutrition.
Bernard : .............
- Craig : - Not sufficient for a definite diagnosis.
A) Was there radio logic evidence of osteomalacia?
B) Have you done the biochemical tests for it ?
C) Its a condition that is difficult to diagnose.
D) Well then, what else could it be?
E) Some patients respond to vitamin D and calcium therapy.
46- Brenda : - It seems strange to me that some types of cancer can be successfully
treated with radiation though radiation can sometimes cause cancer.
Andy : - Well, thats how it is. Theres an awful lot that we still have to learn about these things.
Brenda : .............
Andy : - Because of the known treatments, thats often the one that works best on certain types of cancer.
A) Arent there other ways of treating cancer apart from radiation?
B) Then why do they use radiotherapy on cancer patients?
C) Did the atomic bomb blasts at Hiroshima and Nagasaki create a higher or a lower rate of cancer than was expected?
D) Is there likely to be a breakthrough soon?
E) True. But why is the treatment of cancer so unpleasant?
47.- 51. sorularda parada bo braklan yere uygun den ifadeyi bulunuz.
47- Sleep is still essentially a mystery. __________ . Though sleep has value for the entire body, its chief beneficiary appears to be the brain. Scientists suggest that sleep helps repair the wear and tear of consciousness and aids in the assimilation of information.
A) Even the basic question Why do we sleep has not been adequately answered
B) REM sleep occurs at intervals through the night and has characteristics of wakefulness
C) The biological clock takes its cue largely from variations in the amount of sunlight entering the eye
D) Most dreaming occurs during REM sleep
E) People deprived of REM sleep one night will spend more time in that state on subsequent nights
48- The symptoms of metabolic diseases are easily confused with much more common
conditions. _______. But correct diagnosis is essential for appropriate treatment.
A) In 1964 widespread neonatal testing began for PKU
B) Metabolic diseases arise from inherited defects in enzymes involved in the production of energy
C) These diseases arise from account for a significant fraction of chronic illness and death in infancy
D) The benefits of such testing are obvious for individuals and families
E) Consequently, their diagnosis is challenging even to specialists
49- The cause of the immeasurable loss of memory and concentration that come with normal ageing is still shrouded in mystery. ______. This is known and explains the disease. But there is little evidence for the death of neurons in healthy people as they age.
A) There appears to be some connection between this and detectable amounts of a protein called p75
B) More subtle changes are thought to be responsible for mental decline
C) The brain cells of other primates are being examined
D) In Alzheimers disease and in some other age-linked disorders, neurons are killed
E) The death of Ch4 cells causes some of the symptoms of Alzheimers disease
50- Scarlet fever occurs less frequently than it used to and the course it takes is less serious._______. This latter can, perhaps, be accounted for by the improved physical condition of people, consequent on their being much better fed and housed than formerly.
A) Then there was rarely and real cause for anxiety provided treatment was prompt and rigorous
B) Indeed, streptococci caused a high mortality particularly among mothers and babies in maternity wards
C) This is partly due to the effective treatments available today and partly to a definite reduction in its severity
D) Even so, all signs of infection must be promptly dealt with by a doctor
E) The classical picture of signs and symptoms is now rarely seen
51- Of the early gases used in anaesthesia, cyclopropane alone achieved a permanent
place. This gas is a potent narcotic and can be given with a high percentage
of oxygen. _______ . As a result, it came to be much used for thoracic surgery.
A) It is not irritating to the respiratory passages and depresses breathing
B) As it is an expensive gas, it is always used in a closed circuit to avoid waste
C) In its pure form it is highly inflammable
D) Actually, all of the gases that had been tried had had certain disadvantages
E) A constant search for new and better agents continued
52.- 56. sorularda, cmleler srasyla okunduunda parann anlam btnln
bozan cmleyi bulunuz.
52- (I) Virchows greatest work was his foundation of the science of cellular pathology. (II) This is an interesting case of physiologic deviation from the normal. (III) He put the microscope to great use in pathology, and was the first to give a complete pathological description of leukaemia. ( IV) He believed that every cell arises from an older cell. ( V) He also believed that the fundamental changes in disease affect the cells of the body.
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
53- ( I ) Nothing affects the back more than the way we stand, walk and sit.(
II) A bad posture makes for a bad back. ( III ) People with bad backs should
avoid carrying heavy weights.( IV) Similarly, a bad back makes for a bad posture.
(V) What we all need to do is improve our posture by training ourselves to walk,
stand and sit properly.
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E)V
54- (I) It has long been known to bacteria experts that the tubercle bacillus
is the germ in milk, which most strongly resists heat treatment. (II) The bacteria
left were mostly found to be of the inert type. (III) To destroy this organism
it is necessary to heat milk to about 60C for 15 minutes. (IV) Its destruction
has always been regarded as a way of testing the efficiency of pasteurisation.
(V) A heat treatment of this kind destroys about 99% of the common bacteria
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
55- (I) XP is a rare genetic disorder which affects one in a million children.
II) Because of an enzyme deficiency, their skin is overtly sensitive to sunlight.
(III) If they are exposed to sunlight, they get terribly badly burnt. (IV) The
general feeling is that a cure for this condition is being hindered by lack
of funds. (V) Eventually, they develop fatal skin cancers and brain tumours.
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
56- (I) The impact of noise from traffic may be reduced by the installation
of special equipment on motor vehicles and by urban development plans. (II)
The precise health and environmental effects of noise pollution are not fully
known. (III) Prolonged noise exposure may cause general personal stress, and
even permanent damage to the auditory system. (IV) Exposure to moderate intensities
in the environment affects the cardiovascular system, but no definite permanent
effects on the circulatory system have been demonstrated. (V) Moderate noise
levels have been known to cause vasoconstriction of the peripheral areas of
the body and papillary dilation, but there is no evidence that these changes
are harmful over time.
A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V
57.- 59. sorular aadaki paraya gre cevaplaynz.
The importance of early detection of deafness in childhood is generally recognized. Detection is normally a two-stage process of which the first is a screening test of hearing. Screening tests sift out children with impaired hearing from those with normal hearing and can be successfully administered at any time after the age of seven months. Children who fail a screening test are given a diagnostic test, as the second stage in the process, to determine the nature and extent of their hearing loss. Both screening and diagnostic tests must be appropriate to the developmental level of the children to whom they are administered. Special techniques for testing babies and young children have been evolved at Manchester University. When deafness has been diagnosed, parents are advised to seek guidance about the management and early training of their children at the audiology clinics established by an increasing number of local authorities and hospitals.
57- We understand from the passage that screening tests ......... .
A) can be effectively administered well before a child is one year old
B) indicate whether a child is completely deaf or has normal hearing
C) require a certain degree of cooperation from the child
D) can be more accurate than the diagnostic ones
E)can be very upsetting for the child
58- It is made clear in the passage that both the screening tests and the diagnostic tests for hearing ........ .
A) are in need of a thorough up-dating
B) are still not really reliable
C) can be used to determine the degree of the hearing loss
D) have detected hearing defects in very young babies
E) have to be suited to the level of development of the individual child
59- We understand from the passage that once it has been established that a child is deaf,....
A) the parents should apply to various local authorities for advice and support
B) the child will be sent to a special school for training
C) the child will be admitted to hospital for further tests
D) the parents are encouraged to go to audiology clinics for help and advice on how to assist their child
E) the parents should check what the neighbourhood has to offer in the way of special schooling for the deaf
60. 62. sorular aadaki paraya gre cevaplaynz.
For years, it has been assumed that obesity is the result of too much food and too little exercise. While this maxim is largely correct, the aetiology of obesity can be much more complex. There is a well-documented familial tendency, but whether this is of environmental or genetic origin is unclear. Studies of twins separated at birth and living apart provide strong evidence for a substantial genetic influence. Children of overweight parents, when adopted by lean families, have a greater tendency to become obese than do adoptees from nonobese natural parents. Energy efficiency may contribute to obesity; with reserves of fat deposits readily available to metabolise in the obese, a given amount of activity requires a smaller expenditure of energy. This theory has been invoked by those who complain that they gain weight whether they eat or not, and indeed there is evidence of differences in energy efficiency among individuals. Similarly, obesity has been attributed to abnormally low basal metabolic rates (BMRs) since obese individuals do show lower BMRs. However, this fact is due to an artifact of BMR measurement; a larger proportion of the total fat mass of an obese person is inert, low-metabolising fat, a fact that makes BMR calculations lower.
60. The main idea of this passage is .. .
A) to discredit the idea that there is a greater degree of energy efficiency
in the obese
B) that the environmental and the genetic causes of obesity are more or less the same
C) to establish that the factors behind obesity are highly complex and even contradictory
D) that obesity is a serious health hazard and that a great deal more research into the treatment of it is required
E) to impress on overweight parents the need to watch their childrens diet and life-style
61. According to the passage, the theory that obesity has a strong genetic basis . .
A) seems more likely than the one concerning the BMRs
B) is slowly falling into disfavour and being replaced by one that puts the emphasis on energy efficiency
C) has not so far been well researched, but as it is the most likely theory, it deserves to be
D) is supported by some studies of twins that have been brought up separately
E) is soon likely to be fully substantiated
62. The passage suggests that the theory that obesity is due to a low BMR .
A) has never had any serious recognition
B) needs to be reconsidered as the manner of calculating this rate in the obese is inaccurate
C) has been invented by the obese who claim that the amount they eat makes no difference to their weight
D) will probably turn out to be the correct theory
E) has been thoroughly researched in several cases of twins
63. 65. sorular aadaki paraya gre cevaplaynz.
The government of Britain is again looking at fluoridation of the public water supply as a possible means of achieving nationwide improvements in dental hygiene. To the casual observer, given the highly erroneous impression that the presence of fluoride in toothpaste is beneficial in the prevention of dental caries, such a measure may understandably appear desirable and worthy of public support. However, many water authorities across the country have long understood the risks associated with fluoridation; but the government and the various official organizations that support such a measure continually deny these risks. It should be realized that there are two forms of fluoride. One of these is calcium fluoride, which is a natural substance occurring in water at very low levels of 0.01-1 parts per million and a substance which the various organizations involved in promoting fluoridation constantly draw attention to when attempting to justify their case. The other form of fluoride is sodium fluoride, which occurs alongside various related substances such as fluosilicic acid and is an extremely dangerous industrial by-product produced by such industries as aluminium, ceramics, phosphate fertilizes and nuclear power. This form of fluoride is an accumulative poison even more toxic than lead and only slightly less toxic than arsenic.
63. The writer of the passage informs us that, contrary to the facts, a great many people believe that . .
A) the public water supply is slowly being polluted by fluoride from industrial
B) both types of fluoride are extremely dangerous
C) fluoride helps to keep teeth strong and healthy
D) the water supply could be fluoridated at little expense
E) no risks would be entailed if the water supplies were fluoridated
64. We learn from the passage that calcium fluoride .. .
A) in the public water supply could in time endanger the health of the people
B) is used in toothpaste because it cures dental cavities
C) is an important ingredient in many fertilizers
D) and sodium fluoride can be used interchangeably
E) is naturally present in water but in minute amounts
65. The writer of the passage puts great emphasis on the fact that one type of fluoride .
A) is an industrial by-product and highly toxic
B) certainly helps to prevent tooth decay
C) leads to lead poisoning
D) is being factory produced so that the water supplies can be fluoridated
E) only occurs naturally in such small amounts that ways of supplementing it must be found
66. 68. sorular aadaki paraya gre cevaplaynz.
The site of a hospital needs careful consideration. More and more people now agree that a hospital should, wherever possible, be part of the community it serves. This makes for the convenience of patients, particularly outpatients, and eases staff recruitment. Whilst it may be necessary to serve small communities by peripheral separate out-patient departments, in general, in-patient and out-patient buildings should be on the same site. It is not, however, always practicable to build extensively in a town or city, and it is difficult to make provision for expansion. The actual design of a hospital is also of great importance. Medicine is ever changing, and it is difficult to forecast changes that lie ahead. Doctors invariably call for flexibility in planning, which is really only practicable if hospital construction is on ground-floor level and if the wards and the special investigator departments are so designed that they can be readily extended.
66. Clearly, the writer of the passage believes that, ideally, a hospital should .
A) be designed carefully so that no changes will be needed in the future
B) have a series of separate, peripheral out-patient departments
C) concentrate either on out-patient departments or on in-patient ones, but not both
D) be small and serve quite a small community
E) be situated within easy distance of the people who come to it for treatment
67. We understand from the passage that one problem of building a hospital within a town is that .
A) there are likely to be constant changes in the staff
B) it will very likely be impossible to make any additions to it at a later date
C) there will be more patients than the doctors will be able to cope with
D) the size necessary to treat so many patients makes administration extremely complex
E) it is usually impossible to have an out-patient department
68. It is pointed out in the passage that the flexibility that the medical profession looks for in a hospital building .
A) has to be planned in accordance with the changes that are forecast for the
B) is an unnecessary luxury
C) can be provided easily and inexpensively
D) is really only feasible in single-storey constructions
E) largely concerns the size of the wards that are favoured
69. 71. sorular aadaki paraya gre cevaplaynz.
By far the most common sleep complaint is insomnia. About a third of Americans have trouble falling asleep or staying asleep, problems that result in listlessness and loss of alertness during the day. Most of the time the distress is temporary, brought on by anxiety about a problem at work or a sudden family crisis. But sometimes sleep difficulties can extend for months and years. Faced with a chronic situation, insomniacs frequently medicate themselves with alcohol or drugs. Doctors warm that in most cases sleeping pills should not be taken for longer than two or three weeks. Such drugs can lose their effectiveness with time, and it takes higher and higher dosages to work. People run the risk of becoming dependent on the pills.
69. We understand from the passage that insomnia .
A) is a condition about which very little is known
B) has an adverse effect on ones daytime performance
C) seems to be a bigger problem in American than elsewhere in the world
D) is a common cause of alcoholism
E) is on the increase as people have to face more and more problems
70. The point is made in the passage that short-term sleeplessness .
A) is very often caused by a worrying situation
B) produces no ill-effects and should be disregarded
C) should never be treated with drugs
D) refers to the type of insomnia that lasts no longer than three weeks
E) responds well to sleeping pills
71. It is emphasized in the passage that sleeping pills . .
A) can intensify certain types of insomnia
B) are used regularly by almost a third of the American people
C) are only rarely habit-forming
D) undermine ones daytime efficiency
E) should not be taken over a long period of time
72. 74. sorular aadaki paraya gre cevaplaynz.
Malaria remains probably the most serious single threat to health throughout the tropics and subtropics. A newcomer to an area in which malaria is highly endemic may be misled by the apparently robust health of most the local people. The adults, however , are simply the relatively resistant survivors of a disease that regularly kills a large percentage of infants. The previously unexposed immigrant to virtually all of Africa, most of Southeast Asia , and much of Latin America is at grave risk of contracting malaria, some forms of which have a mortality rate of 10% in untreated cases. Military forces and construction crews throughout history have been inactivated by this disease. Experiences in Vietnam and on construction projects in Africa continue to demonstrate that antimalarial drugs do not offer complete protection. Malaria is almost always underestimated as to its very wide geographic distribution, the high risk of infection, and the severity of the disease in non immune subjects.
72. An important point that is stressed in the passage is that . .
A) outsiders going to work in areas where malaria is endemic should avoid contact
with the local people
B) malaria is only dangerous if it goes untreated
C) most forms of malaria are harmless
D) a great many people do not realize just how dangerous malaria is
E) the incidence of malaria even in Africa is rapidly decreasing
73. We understand from the passage that where malaria is endemic .. .
A) the whole population is in poor health
B) it causes the death of very many young children
C) people easily develop an immunity to the disease
D) strenuous physical effort should be avoided
E) medical care is ineffective
74. It is clear from the passage that people who have not been exposed to malaria and acquired an immunity to it . .
A) are only at risk if they are in poor health
B) have nothing to fear so long as they take anti malarial drugs when in areas where it is endemic
C) can very easily contract the disease
D) should take certain precautions until they have acquired an immunity
E) are in the majority even in regions where malaria is endemic
75. 77. sorular aadaki paraya gre cevaplaynz.
Asthma may be defined as a malady characterized by attacks of breathlessness due to paroxysmal narrowing of the smaller bronchi and bronchioles. Asthma may start at any age, but most commonly in childhood. The typical attack starts suddenly with breathlessness and wheezing, the difficulty being mainly in expiration. A small amount of viscid mucus is usually expectorated towards the end of the attack. Attacks may occur at any time, but especially during the night or in the early morning. Their duration is variable, some ending in an hour or so, others, especially if complicated by bronchitis, continuing for days. The frequency of attacks varies from one or two a year to several daily. During attacks the lungs become over-distended with air, since the obstruction to respiration is greater in expiration than in inspiration and the muscles of forced inspiration which are brought into action are stronger than the expiratory muscles.
75. We understand from the passage that asthma .
A) leads to a narrowing of the smaller bronchi
B) is a respiratory disorder
C) is relatively rare in childhood
D) is commonly found among people with distended lungs
E) is a condition that can cause serious damage to the lungs
76. It is clear from the passage that, when an asthmatic patient contacts bronchitis, .
A) attacks of breathlessness may last as long as an hour
B) hem ay start to expectorate a small amount of viscid mucus
C) he will find inspiration more difficult than expiration
D) the expiratory muscles will be weakened
E) the attacks are likely to be of long duration
77. It is pointed out in the passage that, during an attack of asthma, . .
A) it is breathing out that is the real problem
B) a condition of breathlessness will very gradually develop
C) the recommended treatment varies according to the age of the patient
D) the cause of the respiratory obstruction can easily be observed
E) people automatically start to breathe more rapidly
78. - 80. sorular aadaki paraya gre cevaplaynz
Ionising radiation has proved to be most valuable, for example, in clinical diagnosis and radiotherapy. However, inadvertent exposure to relatively high doses of ionising radiation is capable of injuring and killing cells, inducing mutations, producing developmental abnormalities in fetuses exposed in utero or even producing latent cancers. On earth, it is impossible to escape exposure to radiation.
Cosmic rays bathe the earth continuously, as do terrestrial concentrations of radionuclides, such as radon gas. The two constitute natural background radiation. Few humans in developed countries escape diagnostic X-rays, and many require radiotherapy as a potential cure for various types of neoplasia. The early injurious effects of radiation appear only when certain cumulative levels of exposure to radiation have been exceeded. However, the later appearing consequences may have no thresholds; hence, the publics concern about the possible carcinogenecity of even low-level exposures.
78. According to the passage, ionising radiation ______________
A) will, in the long run, inevitably produce carcinogenecity
B) affects different people in different ways
C) is at the same time useful and dangerous
D) has no long term adverse effects
E) is the major reason for abnormalities in fetuses
79. We understand from the passage that no one ____________ .
A) need worry about low level exposure to radiation
B) can avoid diagnostic X-rays
C) who has not been exposed in utero to radiation has latent cancers
D) can escape exposure to background radiation
E) should go on with a course of radiotherapy if early harmful effects appear
80. We understand from the passage that there is considerable concern about the later appearing effects of radiation_________ .
A) although the level of cumulative radiation that causes them is very high
B) since the degree of radiation needed to produce them is unknown
C) even though it has been demonstrated that diagnostic X-rays do not cause any such effects
D) particularly, as they may cause mutations in yet unborn generations
E) though these may include the cure for certain types of neoplasia
D S S A L I K MART 2002-CEVAPLAR